真腊风土记 (The Land and Social Conditions of Chenla), Annotated by Xia Nai
by Zhou Daguan & Nai Xia
Publisher: The Commercial Press, Beijing, China
Language : Chinese
Latest additions to Angkor Database Library, Zhou Daguan's famous description of Angkor from his 1296 visit: 2016 republication of the 1981 annotated edition by renowned Chinese archaeologist Xia Nai.
ពីការពិពណ៌នាពីអង្គរដ៏ល្បីល្បាញរបស់លោក Zhou Daguan ពីឆ្នាំ ១២៩៦: ២០១៦ នៃការបោះពុម្ពផ្សាយឆ្នាំ ១៩៨១ ដោយអ្នកនិពន្ធបុរាណវិទូជនជាតិចិនឈ្មោះ Xia Nai។
Original text annotated by renowned Chinese archaeologist Xia Nai.
This edition includes 西游录 (Journey Towards West) , written by 耶律楚材 (Yelu Chucai), a record of this important statesman and Confucian scholar's journey when he accompanied Genghis Khan's armies to the west for Persia between 1219 and 1224.
About the Authors
Zhou Daguan (also Tcheou Ta-Kouan, Zhu Daguan) 周达观 (c. 1270, Yongjia (modern Wenzhou)–?), a Chinese traveler under the Temür Khan, authored the sole written and direct account of the customs of Cambodia and the Angkorean power from the 13th century that has been preserved to our days.
Arrived at Angkor in August 1296, he remained at the court of King Indravarman III until July 1297. We know only a third of his account, The Customs of Cambodia (真臘風土記, Zhēnlà Fēngtǔ Jì, literally The Land and Social Conditions of Chenla)), first translated into French by the sinologist Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat in 1819 (Description du royaume de Cambodge par un voyageur chinois qui a visité cette contrée à la fin du XIII siècle, précédée d'une notice chronologique sur ce même pays, extraite des Annales de la Chine, Imprimerie J. Smith, 1819), and later on by Paul Pelliot in 1902 (1). In 2007, the linguist Peter Harris completed the first direct translation from Chinese to modern English.
Angkor Database recommends the direct translation established from the ancient Chinese text into English and Khmer by native Chinese Ms. Beling Uk and native Cambodian Solang Uk in 2010 and 2011.
The Customs of Cambodia, excerpt.
(1) In Antoine Brébion's Dictionnaire Bibliographique, the entry Tcheou-Ta-Kouan states: 'Lettré chinois du XIIIe siècle de notre ère, qui avait pour appellation Ts'Ao-T'ING; il était originaire de Yong-Kia au Tchô-Kiang, il suivit l'ambassade chinoise envoyée au Cambodge en 1295, il revint en Chine en 1297. Le très érudit sinologue qu'est M. P. PELLIOT, de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient, lui a restitué la paternité d'une relation intitulée Description du Cambodge ..., qu'ABEL DE RÉMUSAT avait attribuée à MA- TOUAN-LIN.'
Xia Nai (夏鼐, 1910, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China – 19 June 1985) was an eminent Chinese archaelogist, celebrated on the international academic scene as a member of the British Academy (1974), the Swedish Royal Academy of Letters, History, and Antiquities (1983), the U.S. Academy of Sciences (1984), the Italian Institute of Far Eastern Studies, the Third World Academy of Sciences and the German Institute of Archaelogy.
After majoring in economic history at Tsinghua University in Beijing (1934), he studied Egyptology at the University College of London and later joined the Beijing Central Museum. A professor at Zhejiang University, he worked on many excavation sites in China (including the discovery of the Yin ruins in Anyang, dating back to the Shang dynasty) and was appointed Director of the Institute of Archaelogy within the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) (1962–1982).
Persecuted and submitted to 're-education' during the Cultural Revolution, between 1966 and 1972, he resumed his academic and field work afterwards and published in 1981 a major, annotated edition of Zhou Daguan's Customs of Cambodia. He also contributed to the development of the Wenzhou Museum, Wenzhou being his and the famous Chinese traveler Zhou Daguan's hometown.
In Anyang,1935 (Source: School of Archaelogy and Museology)
Xia Nai (center) checking findings at the Ding Mausoleum (Ming Dynasty) near Beijing, 1958 (Source: China Daily)