Danses Cambodgiennes (Cambodian Dance)

by Samdech Chaufea Thiounn & Sappho Marchal

Language : French

1968 - 3d edition from the 1926 and 1956 publications, revised by Jeanne Cuisinier. Foreword by M.P. Pasquier. (#39 at Angkor Database Library) - 202 pages - Hardback Institut Bouddhique, Imprimerie Cambodia, Phnom Penh

With his profound knowledge of the Reamker (Khmer version of the Ramayana epic), and his access to the Royal Palace where the dancers of the Royal Ballet were still strictly confined, Samdech (Lord) Chaufea Veang Thiounn was well-equipped to attempt a comprehensive and vivid study of Cambodian classical dance techniques and choreography.

Contemporary with George Groslier's important essays on the same subject, this book is beautifully illustrated by Sappho Marchal, the daughter of Angkor Curator Henri Marchal who, at the same period, was carefully studying the garments and ornaments of Angkor Wat sculpted apsaras

Detailing the color code of masks and costumes in Khmer classical dance, the author offers a condensed yet luminous analysis of gestures, individual and group motions, symbolical expressiveness of choreographic tableaux. With precise examples, the author shows how the Khmer female dancers and ballet masters have adapted (some would say 'perfected') to their own style the 28 mudras (hand gestures) compiled in the old Indian treatise Abhinaya Darpana

Also described in this essential work are the formative years of the Royal dancers, their practice sessions and their mastery of an ancient art in which "every single gesture has the meaningul power of an articulated word". And the musical phrases developed with the choreography are detailed with the same elegant accuracy.

About the Authors

Samdech Chaufea Thiounn

Samdech ('Lord', in Khmer) Chaufea Veang Thiounn (1864, Kompong Chhnang - 1946, Phnom Penh) was Minister of The Royal Palace, Treasury and Fine Arts under the French Protectorate. He started his public career as an interpreter and advisor for several French explorers, in particular as an attaché to the Mission Pavie. He also served as Prime Minister under King Norodom Sihanouk.

In 1906, Thiounn assisted King Sisowath of Cambodia during the King's official visit to France, witnessing the performances (the first ones ever outside of the Royal Palace) of the Cambodian Royal Ballet. His account of the journey during which he developed his interest in Khmer classical dance (Voyage du roi Sisowath en France, translated from Khmer into French by Olivier de Bernon in 2006) has helped many historians. 

After publishing a documented study on the frescoes at the Royal Pagoda Preah Oubosoth Rottanaram in 1903, with important insights on the Reamker mythology and symbolic, Samdech Chaufea (or Chauffa) wrote the most complete essay on Khmer classical choreography, Danses Cambodgiennes (published by Phnom Penh Buddhist Institute and illustrated by artist-researcher Sappho Marchal).

Sappho Marchal

Author and artist Sappho Marchal (1904, Paris - ?), the daughter of French archeologist and Angkor Wat Conservator Henri Marchal, was the first researcher to study, document in drawings and count the numerous female stone figures in Angkor Wat.  

Sappho (sometimes spelled Sapho) Marchal came to Cambodia as a toddler, in 1905. She grew up in Siem Reap and on the archeological sites her father, who became Angkor Conservator in 1916, supevervised. As a young artist, she illustrated many scientific articles published by Henri Marchal.

While capturing with her pen the slightest details of costumes and ornaments worn by devatas and apsaras around the Khmer temple complex, Sappho Marchal inventoried 1,737 female sculptures and carvings in Angkor, not far from the account of 1,796 established by Kent Davis seventy years later (probably because the young artist did not have access to the upper levels of the Angkorian towers).

At only 23 years of age, Sappho Marchal published a sum of her drawings and observations in Paris, Costumes et Parures khmèrs d'après les Devatâ d'Angkor-Vat. She also authored a collection of illustrations on Khmer traditional choreography, Danses cambodgiennes (Editions d'Extreme Asie, Saigon, 1926). Both books, along with George Groslier's own work, inspired Queen Kossamak of Cambodia when the Queen gave a new stimulus to the Royal Ballet traditions with the "Apsara Dance".

We know that she went back to France in the 1930s, since her parents stayed with her there during the Second World War years, from 1938. She was then known as S. Brébion-Marchal, possibly after marrying the son of journalist-researcher Antoine Brébion (1857-1917), author of a "Bibliographie des voyages dans l'Indochine francaise du IX au XIX eme siecle"